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化繁为简从一而终

 
 
 

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那些文献  

2011-06-16 10:02:38|  分类: 转帖引用 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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走向共和第46集,为了约束袁世凯,孙文发布临时约法,岂止约束袁,乃是遏制专制的根本。
想起了美国的独立宣言,那些光耀历史的文献,宜永记。还应记住两个执笔人,宋教仁,杰斐逊。
                                                                                                             2011.6.16

      
       民国元年三月十一日公布
  
第一章 总纲
  第一条 中华民国由中华人民组织之。
  第二条 中华民国之主权属于国民全体。
  第三条 中华民国领土为二十二行省、内外蒙古、西藏、青海。
  第四条 中华民国以参议院、临时大总统、国务员、法院行使其统治权。

第二章 人民
  第五条 中华民国人民一律平等,无种族、阶级、宗教之区别。
  第六条 人民得享有左列各项之自由权。
  一 人民之身体非依法律,不得逮捕、拘禁、审问、处罚。
  二 人民之家宅非依法律不得侵入或搜索。
  三 人民有保有财产及营业之自由。
  四 人民有言论、著作、刊行及集会结社之自由。
  五 人民有书信秘密之自由。
  六 人民有居住迁徙之自由。
  七 人民有信教之自由。
  第七条 人民有请愿于议会之权。
  第八条 人民有陈诉于行政官署之权。
  第九条 人民有诉讼于法院受其审判之权。
  第十条 人民对于官吏违法损害权利之行为,有陈诉于平政院之权。
  第十一条 人民有应任官考试之权。
  第十二条 人民有选举及被选举之权。
  第十三条 人民依法律有纳税之义务。
  第十四条 人民依法律有服兵之义务。
  第十五条 本章所载民之权利,有认为增进公益、维持治安或非常紧急必要时,得依法律限制之。

第三章 参议院
  第十六条 中华民国之立法权以参议院行之。
  第十七条 参议院以第十八条所定各地方选派之参议员组织之。
  第十八条 参议员每行省、内蒙古、外蒙古、西藏各选派五人;青海选派一人。其选派方法由各地方自定之。
  参议院会议时每参议员有一表决权。
  第十九条 参议院之职权如左︰
  一 议决一切法律案。
  二 议决临时政府之豫算决算。
  三 议决全国之税法币制及度量衡之准则。
  四 议决公债之募集及国库有负担之契约。
  五 承诺第三十四条、三十五条、四十条事件。
  六 答复临时政府咨询事件。
  七 受理人民之请愿。
  八 得以关于法律及其他事件之意见建议于政府。
  九 得提出质问书于国务员,并要求其出席答复。
  十 得咨请临时政府查办官吏纳贿违法事件。
  十一 参议院对于临时大总统认为有谋叛行为时,得以总员五分四以上之出席,出席员四 分三以上之可决弹劾之。
  十二 参议院对于国务员认为失职或违法时,得以总员四分三以上之出席,出席员三分二以上之可决弹劾之。
  第二十条 参议院得自行集会开会闭会。
  第二十一条 参议院之会议须公开之。但有国务员之要求或出席参议员过半数之可决者,得秘密之。
  第二十二条 参议院议决事件咨由临时大总统公布施行。
  第二十三条 临时大总统对于参议院议决事件,如否认时,得于咨达后十日内声明理由,咨院覆议。
  但参议院对于覆议事件,如有到会参议员三分二以上仍执前议时,仍照第二十二条办理。
  第二十四条 参议院议长由参议员用记名投票法互选之,以得票满投票总数之半者为当选。
  第二十五条 参议院参议员于院内之言论及表决,对于院外不负责任。
  第二十六条 参议院参议员除现行犯及关于内乱外患之犯罪外,会期中非得本院许可,不得逮捕。
  第二十七条 参议院法由参议院自定之。
  第二十八条 参议院以国会成立之日解散。其职权由国会行之。

第四章 临时大总统、副总统
  第二十九条 临时大总统、副总统由参议院选举之。以总员四分三以上出席得票满投票总数三分二以上者为当选。
  第三十条 临时大总统代表临时政府,总揽政务,公布法律。
  第三十一条 临时大总统为执行法律或基于法律之委任,得发布命令并得使发布之。
  第三十二条 临时大总统统帅全国海陆军队。
  第三十三条 临时大总统得制定官制官规,但须提交参议院议决。
  第三十四条 临时大总统任免文武职员,但任命国务员及外交大使公使须得参议院之同意。
  第三十五条 临时大总统经参议院之同意,得宣战媾和及缔结条约。
  第三十六条 临时大总统得依法律宣告戒严。
  第三十七条 临时大总统代表全国接受外国之大使、公使。
  第三十八条 临时大总统得提出法律案于参议院。
  第三十九条 临时大总统得颁给勋章并其他荣典。
  第四十条 临时大总统得宣告大赦、特赦、减刑、复权。但大赦须经参议院之同意。
  第四十一条 临时大总统受参议院弹劾后,由最高法院全院审判官互选九人组织特别法庭审判之。
  第四十二条 临时副总统于临时大总统因故去职,或不能视事时得代行其职权。
  
第五章 国务员
  第四十三条 国务总理及各部总长均称为国务员。
  第四十四条 国务员辅佐临时大总统负其责任。
  第四十五条 国务员于临时大总统提出法律案公布法律及发布命令时须副署之。
  第四十六条 国务员及其委员得于参议院出席及发言。
  第四十七条 国务员受参议院弹劾后,临时大总统应免其职。但得交参议院覆议一次。
  
第六章 法院
  第四十八条 法院以临时大总统及司法总长分别任命之法官组织之。
  法院之编制及法官之资格以法律定之。
  第四十九条 法院依法律审判民事诉讼及刑事诉讼。
  但关于行政诉讼及其他特别诉讼,别以法律定之。
  第五十条 法院之审判须公开之。但有认为妨害安宁秩序者得秘密之。
  第五十一条 法官独立审判不受上级官厅之干涉。
  第五十二条 法官在任中不得减俸或转职。非依法律受刑罚宣告或应免职之惩戒处分,不得解职。惩戒条规以法律定之。
  
第七章 附则
  第五十三条 本约法施行后限十个月内,由临时大总统召集国会。其国会之组织及选举法由参议院定之。
  第五十四条 中华民国之宪法由国会制定。宪法未施行以前,本约法之效力与宪法等。
  第五十五条 本约法由参议院参议员三分二以上,或临时大总统之提议,经参议员五分四以上之出席,出席员四分三之可决得增修之。
  第五十六条 本约法自公布之日施行。
  临时政府组织大纲于本约法施行之日废止。
那些文献 - 少数派 - 少数派的博客
 
 

The Declaration of Independence


IN CONGRESS, JULY 4,
1776 THE UNANIMOUS
DECLARATION OF THE
THIRTEEN UNITED
STATES OF AMERAICA

When in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the laws Nature and Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

在人类事务发展的过程中,当一个民族必须解除同另一个民族的联系,并按照自然法则和上帝的旨意,以独立平等的身份立于世界列国之林时,出于对人类舆论的尊重,必须把驱使他们独立的原因予以宣布。

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that they are among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. That to secure these rights, governments are instituted among them, deriving their just power from the consent of the governed. That whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shown that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than t right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such government, and to provide new guards for their future security. Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity, which constrains them to alter their former systems of government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is usurpations, all having in direct object tyranny over these States. To prove this, let facts be submitted to a candid world.

 

我们认为下述真理是不言而喻的:人人生而平等,造物主赋予他们若干不可让与的权利,其中包括生存权、自由权和追求幸福的权利。为了保障这些权利,人们才在他 们中间建立政府,而政府的正当权利,则是经被统治者同意授予的。任何形式的政府一旦对这些目标的实现起破坏作用时,人民便有权予以更换或废除,以建立一个 新的政府。新政府所依据的原则和组织其权利的方式,务使人民认为唯有这样才最有可能使他们获得安全和幸福。若真要审慎的来说,成立多年的政府是不应当由于 无关紧要的和一时的原因而予以更换的。过去的一切经验都说明,任何苦难,只要尚能忍受,人类还是情愿忍受,也不想为申冤而废除他们久已习惯了的政府形式。 然而,当始终追求同一目标的一系列滥用职权和强取豪夺的行为表明政府企图把人民至于专制暴政之下时,人民就有权也有义务去推翻这样的政府,并为其未来的安 全提供新的保障。这就是这些殖民地过去忍受苦难的经过,也是他们现在不得不改变政府制度的原因。当今大不列颠王国的历史,就是屡屡伤害和掠夺这些殖民地的 历史,其直接目标就是要在各州之上建立一个独裁暴政。为了证明上述句句属实,现将事实公诸于世,让公正的世人作出评判。

 

He has refused his assent to laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.

他拒绝批准对公众利益最有益、最必需的法律。

 

He has forbidden his Governors to pass laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend them.

他禁止他的殖民总督批准刻不容缓、极端重要的法律,要不就先行搁置这些法律直至征得他的同意,而这些法律被搁置以后,他又完全置之不理。

 

He has refused to pass other laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.

他拒绝批准便利大地区人民的其他的法律,除非这些地区的人民情愿放弃自己在自己在立法机构中的代表权;而代表权对人民是无比珍贵的,只有暴君才畏惧它。

 

He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.

他把各州的立法委员召集到一个异乎寻常、极不舒适而有远离他们的档案库的地方去开会,其目的无非是使他们疲惫不堪,被迫就范。

 

He has dissolved representative houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasion on the rights of the people.

他一再解散各州的众议院,因为后者坚决反对他侵犯人民的权利。

 

He has refused for a long time, after such dissolution, to cause others to be elected ; whereby the legislative powers, incapable of annihilation, have returned to the people at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the meantime exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without and convulsion within.

他在解散众议院之后,又长期拒绝另选他人,于是这项不可剥夺的立法权便归由普通人民来行使,致使在这其间各州仍处于外敌入侵和内部骚乱的种种危险之中。

 

He has endeavored to prevent the population of these states; for that purpose obstructing the laws of naturalizing of foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migration hither, and raising the condition of new appropriations of lands.

他力图阻止各州增加人口,为此目的,他阻挠外国人入籍法的通过,拒绝批准其他鼓励移民的法律,并提高分配新土地的条件。

 

He has obstructed the administration of justice, by refusing his assent of laws for establishing judiciary powers.

他拒绝批准建立司法权利的法律,以阻挠司法的执行。

 

He has made judges dependent on his will alone, for the tenure of their office, and the amount and payment of their salary.

他迫使法官为了保住任期、薪金的数额和支付而置于他个人意志的支配之下。

 

He has erected a multitude of new officers, and sent hither swarms of officers to harass our people, and eat out our substances.

他滥设新官署,委派大批官员到这里骚扰我们的人民,吞噬他们的财物。

 

He has kept among us, in times of peace, standing armies without the consent of our legislatures.

他在和平时期,未经我们立法机构同意,就在我们中间维持其常备军。

 

He has affected to render the military independent of and superior to the civil power.

他施加影响,使军队独立于文官政权之外,并凌驾于文官政权之上。


He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his assent to their acts of pretended legislation.For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us;

他同他人勾结,把我们置于一种既不符合我们的法规也未经我们法律承认的管辖之下,而且还批准他们炮制的各种伪法案,以便任其在我们中间驻扎大批武装部队;

 

For protecting them, by a mock trial, from punishment for any murder which they should commit on the inhabitants of these States.

不论这些人对我们各州居民犯下何等严重的谋杀罪,他可用加审判来庇护他们,让他们逍遥法外;

 

For cutting off our trade with all parts of the world;

他可以切断我们同世界各地的贸易;

 

For imposing taxes on us without our consent;

未经我们同意便向我们强行征税;

 

For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of trial by jury;

在许多案件中剥夺我们享有陪审制的权益;

 

For transporting us beyond seas to be tried for pretended offenses;

以莫须有的罪名把我们押送海外受审;

 

For abolishing the free systems of English laws in a neighboring Province, establishing therein an arbitrary government, and enlarging its boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule these Colonies;

他在一个邻省废除了英国法律的自由制度,在那里建立专制政府,扩大其疆域,使其立即成为一个样板和合适的工具,以便向这里各殖民地推行同样的专制统治;

 

For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable laws, and altering fundamentally the forms of our governments;

他取消我们的许多特许状,废除我们最珍贵的法律并从根本上改变我们各州政府的形式;

 

For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.

他终止我们立法机构行使权力,宣称他们自己拥有在任何情况下为我们制定法律的权力。

 

He has abdicated government here, by declaring us out of his protection and waging war against us.

他们放弃设在这里的政府,宣称我们已不属他们保护之列,并向我们发动战争。

 

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.

他在我们的海域里大肆掠夺,蹂躏我们的沿海地区,烧毁我们的城镇,残害我们人民的生命。

 

He is at this time transporting large armies of foreign mercenaries to complete the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of cruelty and perfidy scarcely parallel in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the head of a civilized nation.

他此时正在运送大批外国雇佣兵,来从事其制造死亡、荒凉和暴政的勾当,其残忍与卑劣从一开始就连最野蛮的时代也难以相比,他已完全不配当一个文明国家的元首。


He has constrained our fellow citizens taken captive on the high seas to bear arms against their country, to become the executioners of their friends and brethren, or to fall themselves by their hands.

他强迫我们在公海被他们俘虏的同胞拿起武器反对自己的国家,使他们成为残杀自己亲友的刽子手,或使他们死于自己亲友的手下。

 

He has excited domestic insurrection amongst us, and has endeavored to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes, and conditions.

他在我们中间煽动内乱,并竭力挑唆残酷无情的印地安蛮子来对付我们边疆的居民,而众所周知,印地安人作战的准则是不分男女老幼、是非曲直,格杀勿论。

 

In every stage of these oppressions we have petitioned for redress in the most humble terms: our repeated petition have been answered only by repeated injury. A prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a tyrant is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.

在遭受这些压迫的每一阶段,我们都曾以最谦卑的言辞吁请予以纠正。而我们一次又一次的情愿,却只是被报以一次又一次的伤害。一个君主,其品格被他的每一个只有暴君才干的出的行为所暴露时,就不配君临自由的人民。

 

Nor have we been wanting in attention to our British brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpation, which would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our separation, and hold them., as we hold the rest of mankind, enemies in war, in peace friends.

 

我们并不是没有想到我们英国的弟兄。他们的立法机关想把无理的管辖权扩展到我们这里来,我们时常把这个企图通知他们。我们也曾把我们移民来这里和在这里定居的情况告诉他们。我们曾恳求他们天生的正义感和雅量,念在同种同 宗的分上,弃绝这些掠夺行为,因为这些掠夺行为难免会使我们之间的关系和来往中断。可他们对这种正义和同宗的呼声也同样充耳不闻。因此,我们不得不宣布脱 离他们,以对待世界上其他民族的态度对待他们:同我交战者,就是敌人;同我和好者,即为朋友。

 

We, therefore, the Representatives of the United States of America, in General Congress assembled , appealing to the supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the name, and by authority of the good people of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United States Colonies and Independent States; that they are absolved by from all allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State, they have full power to levy war, conclude peace, contract alliances, establish commerce, and to do all other acts and things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honor.

 

因 此我们这些在大陆会议上集会的美利坚合众国的代表们,以各殖民地善良人民的名义,并经他们授权,向世界最高裁判者申诉,说明我们的严重意向,同时郑重宣 布:我们这些联合起来的殖民地现在是,而且按公理也应该是,独立自由的国家;我们对英国王室效忠的全部义务,我们与大不列颠王国之间大不列颠一切政治联系全部断绝,而且必须断绝。作为一个独立自由的国家,我们完全有权宣战、缔和、结盟、通商和采取独立国家有权采取的一切行动。我们坚定地信赖神明上帝的保 佑,同时以我们的生命、财产和神圣的名誉彼此宣誓来支持这一宣言。
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